Coffea arabica is a species of coffee originally indigenous to the mountains of Yemen in the Arabian Peninusla, hence its name, and also from the southwestern highlands of Ethiopia and southeastern Sudan. It is also known as the coffee shrub of Arabia, mountain coffee or arabica coffee.
Coffea arabica is believed to be the first species of coffee to be cultivated, being grown in southwest Arabia for well over 1,000 years. It is considered to produce better coffee than the other major commercially grown coffee species, Coffea canephora (robusta). Arabica contains less caffeine than any other commercially cultivated species of coffee. Wild plants grow to between 9 and 12 m tall, and have an open branching system; the leaves are opposite, simple elliptic-ovate to oblong, 6–12 cm long and 4–8 cm broad, glossy dark green. The flowers are white, 10–15 mm in diameter and grow in axillary clusters. The fruit is a drupe (though commonly called a "berry") 10–15 mm in diameter, maturing bright red to purple and typically contain two seeds (the coffee 'bean').