"Because history is not" exact science "- it is a humanistic discipline. Its main subject is people, and, as Thucydides said a long time ago, history is not about studying circumstances, but about people in circumstances. Anyone who forgets that because he is in love with his own special area of interest or is fascinated by the model-building activities and ideal types of behaviourists can only be described as simple-minded.”

- Gordon A. Craig, 1981 in Münster / Westphalia

Water supply in the Roman Empire

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Water supply in the Roman Empire

The quality of execution in the Roman Empire is absolutely comparable to the technology of road construction and in some cases very cleverly combined with road construction is the construction of the water supply systems in the cities of the empire.

The tribal organization of the Celts in Asia Minor

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The tribal organization of the Celts in Asia Minor

In our article about the origin of the Celtic immigrants to Asia Minor, we had already roughly written about the local division of the tribes. Basically, the ethnic group of the Celts who immigrated to Asia Minor is also referred to as Galatians.

Technical development in the major cities of the Romans

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Technical development in the major cities of the Romans

The supply of the larger cities of the Roman Empire - Rome already had 800,000 inhabitants in the first century AD - could only be ensured through structural adjustment of the surrounding rural regions, in the course of which rural estates close to the city or on trade routes began to meet the growing demand through market-oriented forms of production.

Potnia Theron - the controller of the wild

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Potnia Theron - the controller of the wild

In ancient times, Potnia Theron - the ruler of the wild, was considered a female deity who, as the mistress of wild animals, was responsible for protecting them.

Ziyaret Tepe - Assyrians did not rely on Scripture alone

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Ziyaret Tepe - Assyrians did not rely on Scripture alone

"The invention of recording systems is a milestone in human history. Any find that can help shed light on these milestones is therefore an important tool in understanding the progress of mankind," says researcher John MacGinnis in Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 2014. What is the background of this sentence?

Alexander the Great - Conquerer from Pella

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Alexander the Great

During our travels and visits of ancient cities there was always one name mentioned: Alexander the Great. Everybody learned about Alexander during history lesson at school for being the leader of one of the biggest empires ever.

Apollonios of Perge - Master of Mathematics

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Apollonios of Perge

It was Apollonius who gave the ellipse, the parabola, and the hyperbola the names by which we know them. The hypothesis of eccentric orbits, or equivalently, deferent and epicycles, to explain the apparent motion of the planets and the varying speed of the Moon, are also attributed to him.

Herodotus - Greek Historian from Halicarnassus

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Herodotus - Greek Historian

Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian  who lived in the 5th century BC (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC). He was born in Caria, Halicarnassus ( Modern day Bodrum, Muğla, Türkiye). He is regarded as the "Father of History" in Western culture.

Hesiod - Greek Oral Poet and Mythologist

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Hesiod - Greek Oral Poet

Hesiod (Hesíodos) was a Greek oral poet and is often identified as the first economist. His date is uncertain, but leading scholars favour the eighth century BC for when Hesiod lived.

Homer - Ilias - ancient historical poet

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Homer - Ilias

The ancient Greeks generally believed that Homer was an historical individual, but modern scholars are skeptical: no reliable biographical information has been handed down from classical antiquity, and the poems themselves manifestly represent the culmination of many centuries of oral story-telling and a well-developed "formulaic" system of poetic composition.

Strabo - Greek Historian and Geographer

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Strabo - Greek Historian and Geographer

Strabo was a Greek historian, geographer and philosopher. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus (modern Amasya, Turkey), a city which he said to be situated the approximate equivalent of 75 km from the Black sea. 

Xenophon - philosopher and writer in ancient Athens

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Xenophon

Xenophon's birth date is uncertain, but most scholars agree that he was born around 431 BC near the city of Athens. Xenophon was born into the ranks of the upper classes, thus granting him access to certain privileges of the aristocracy of ancient Attica.

The legendary Xerxes Canal of Chalkidiki

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The legendary Xerxes Canal of Chalkidiki

Our investigations on the peninsula of Chalkidiki had inevitably led us to the historical background of the campaigns of Xerxes, who as Achaemenid Great King and Egyptian Pharaoh reigned the vast Persian Empire between 486-465 BC.

Amphipolis - Greek colonization in North Aegean

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Amphipolis - Greek colonization in North Aegean

The term "Greek colonization" refers to the founding of Greek planting towns (Apoikia) extending from the mainland and the islands of the Aegean before and during the archaic period of Greek antiquity.

Sharks - A journey into the native times of Perchtoldsdorf

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Sharks - A journey into the native times of Perchtoldsdorf

In Perchtoldsdorf, a market town in the district of Mödling in the vicinity of Vienna, we had met by our friend Robert some time ago. Today, one of the numerous wine regions around Vienna, the wine farming already draws conclusions to the mineral origin.

Along the Via Egnatia: from Ohrid to Elbasan in Albania

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Along the Via Egnatia: from Ohrid to Elbasan in Albania

The Ancient Roman Via Egnatia enters Albania, which at that time was called Illyricum, from Ohrid in the east, then ran through Elbasan from where one arm directly connected to Dyrrhachion (todays Durres).

Water supply of the ancient high cultures in Asia Minor

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Water supply of the ancient high cultures in Asia Minor

With the end of the epoch as collectors and hunters and the settlement in the first village groups, there were of course also new requirements in terms of water requirements and water use in the history of human development.

Apellicon of Teos - Collector of Literature

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Apellicon of Teos - Collector of Literature

One of the city's residents, known far beyond the gates of Teo, was the politician and collector of literature Apellicon, who later moved to Athens and joined the tyrant Athenion there.

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